Learner

Exercise: Drive Forward and Stop

So lets do some actual robot programming. Assuming you have constructed a simple robot chassis with two DC motors driving two wheels, one on the left and one on the right side of the robot, we will also assume you have configured the controller phone for this hardware and named the motors left_motor and right_motor. Given all this, we can write a simple LinearOpMode to drive the robot forward for 2 seconds and then stop:

Exceptions

When running a Java program, if the JVM detects an error it will generate an error condition called an Exception. An Exception is actually an object that contains information about the error and is available for your code to capture and handle as needed. Generating an exception is called throwing, since all Exception objects are subclasses of the Java Throwable object.

Collections

A Collection is an object that stores lists of other objects allowing the group of stored objects to be manipulated in many powerful ways. A Collection may sound like an array or ArrayList and while a Collection is quite different than an array, ArrayList is in fact one implementation of the Collection concept. Java has a large number of specific implementations of the Collection concept you can use. Here are the most commonly used types of Collection:

Arrays

An array is a special object used to store a list of variables of the same data type. An array is defined like this:

This statement defines and then creates an array of 3 integer variables (or elements) which will be addressed as a list. The new keyword defines the size of the array. We can then put values in the array and access them with an index value (position) in the array. Arrays are indexed starting at zero:

Enums

Lots of times when programming we need to assign constant values to track the various states of a data item. For example, in a program we have an integer variable that indicates the day of the week. We can define a convention where the integer value zero is assigned to mean Sunday, the value of 1 to mean Monday, 2 to mean Tuesday and so on. When coding our program we have to remember that 2 means Tuesday. This tracking of numeric values and what they mean for various variables can get cumbersome and error prone in more complex programs.

The Number Classes

We explored Java's primitive data types in an earlier lesson. While we use primitive numeric data types directly most of the time, there are times when we need to treat a numeric primitive as an object. For this reason Java provides the Number Classes. There is a subclass of Number for each numeric primitive:

Static Modifier

Normally, class members (variables and methods) are accessed via an instance reference. Leaving methods aside for the moment, this is because class variables exist separately for each instance of a class (created with the new keyword). If you have a variable x in a class and create two instances of the class, each instance will have its own x variable, access to which is by the instance reference. You also access methods via the instance reference. Here is an example:

Controlling access to members of a class

You have seen the access control modifier public used extensively in our Java examples. The access control modifier is applied to classes and class members (variables and methods) and determines what access code in other classes have to the class members.

Overriding

We have seen how we can extend a class to have additional fields and methods and build a more specialized object. But what if we want to change the behavior of one of the superclass methods? we can do this with Overriding.

Inheritance

In our first unit on objects we learned how objects can encapsulate fields and methods creating a custom data type we can use to model the actual objects in the problem we are trying to solve. These objects make it easy to describe and work with our data and facilitate reuse of code. In this unit we are going to explore some of the more powerful features of Java's object oriented design.

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